Auschwitz II-Birkenau Concentrationcamp

Auschwitz II-Birkenau

In 2017 I visited Auschwitz I and I forgot to visit Auschwitz II which is a few kilometers away.  One year later, in 2018, I decided to go back. The victories of Operation Barbarossa in the summer and fall of 1941 against Hitler’s new enemy, the Soviet Union, led to dramatic changes in Nazi anti-Jewish ideology and the profile of prisoners brought to Auschwitz.Construction on Auschwitz II-Birkenau began in October 1941 to ease congestion at the main camp. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS), intended the camp to house 50,000 prisoners of war, who would be interned as forced laborers.

IMG_7343.jpgPlans called for the expansion of the camp first to house 150,000 and eventually as many as 200,000 inmates. An initial contingent of 10,000 Soviet prisoners of war arrived at Auschwitz I in October 1941, but by March 1942 only 945 were still alive, and these were transferred to Birkenau, where most of them died from disease or starvation by May.

IMG_7345.jpgBy this time Hitler had decided to annihilate the Jewish people, so Birkenau was changed to a labor camp–extermination camp. The Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum estimates that 1.3 million people, 1.1 million of them Jewish, were sent to the camp during its existence.

IMG_7311.jpgThe chief of construction of Auschwitz II-Birkenau was Karl Bischoff. Unlike his predecessor, he was a competent and dynamic bureaucrat who, in spite of the ongoing war, carried out the construction deemed necessary. The Birkenau camp, the four crematoria, a new reception building, and hundreds of other buildings were planned and constructed.

IMG_7308.jpgBischoff’s plans called for each barrack to have an occupancy of 550 prisoners (one-third of the space allotted in other Nazi concentration camps). He later changed this to 744 prisoners per barrack. The SS designed the barracks not so much to house people as to destroy them.

IMG_7334.jpgThe first gas chamber at Birkenau was the “red house” (called Bunker 1 by SS staff), a brick cottage converted into a gassing facility by tearing out the inside and bricking up the windows. It was operational by March 1942. A second brick cottage, the “white house” or Bunker 2, was converted some weeks later. These structures were in use for mass killings until early 1943.Himmler visited the camp in person on 17 and 18 July 1942.

IMG_7316.jpgHe was given a demonstration of a mass killing using the gas chamber in Bunker 2 and toured the building site of the new IG Farben plant being constructed at the nearby town of Monowitz.In early 1943, the Nazis decided to increase greatly the gassing capacity of Birkenau. Crematorium II, which had been designed as a mortuary with morgues in the basement and ground-level incinerators, was converted into a killing factory by installing gas-tight doors, vents for the Zyklon B (a highly lethal cyanide-based poison) to be dropped into the chamber, and ventilation equipment to remove the gas thereafter.

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It went into operation in March. Crematorium III was built using the same design. Crematoria IV and V, designed from the start as gassing centers, were also constructed that spring. By June 1943, all four crematoria were operational. Most of the victims were killed using these four structures.

The Gypsy camp.

Zigeunermischlinge (Gypsy half-breeds) used in an anthropological study by German psychologist Eva Justin. Housed in the Gypsy camp, all but two of Justin’s subjects were murdered when the camp was liquidated.

IMG_7347.jpgOn 10 December 1942, Himmler issued an order to send all Sinti and Roma (Gypsies) to concentration camps, including Auschwitz. A separate camp for Roma was set up at Auschwitz II-Birkenau known as the Zigeunerfamilienlager (Gypsy Family Camp). The first transport of German Gypsies arrived on 26 February 1943, and was housed in Section B-IIe of Auschwitz II. Approximately 23,000 Gypsies had been brought to Auschwitz by 1944, 20,000 of whom died there.One transport of 1,700 Polish Sinti and Roma were killed in the gas chambers upon arrival, as they were suspected to be ill with spotted fever

IMG_7318.jpgGypsy prisoners were used primarily for construction work. Thousands died of typhus and noma due to overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, and malnutrition.Anywhere from 1,400 to 3,000 prisoners were transferred to other concentration camps before the murder of the remaining population.

IMG_7319.jpgOn 2 August 1944, the SS cleared the Gypsy camp. A witness in another part of the camp later told of the Gypsies unsuccessfully battling the SS with improvised weapons before being loaded into trucks. The surviving population (estimated at 2,897 to 5,600) was then killed en masse in the gas chambers.The murder of the Romani people by the Nazis during World War II is known in the Romani language as the Porajmos (devouring).

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